Position, Rotation, and Scale in Unity | Virtual Reality Tutorial

Transforming Objects

There is a component that is in nearly all game objects in Unity: Transform. In this tutorial, you will master Unity’s Transform component. To learn how to build 30 virtual reality games in Unity, check out our Unity 3D course!

Position

Select Main Camera from the Hierarchy. To change the camera’s X position in the Scene, you can change the “0” in the X field of the Position property. For instance, change Main Camera’s X position to 2, as in the following screenshot. The camera will move in the Scene.

Another way to change the X position is to click on the “X” beside “Position” and drag your cursor left and right.

Notice that changing the X position moves the camera in one degree of freedom: along the horizontal axis. The horizontal axis is represented as the red arrow extending from the camera in the Scene. You can click on this red arrow to move the camera horizontally.

The gizmo at the top right of the Scene window shows that the red arrow pertains to the X axis.

The Y position represents the vertical axis. Changing the Y position in the Transform component moves the camera up and down.

The X and Y positions allow us to put the camera in a 2D environment. The Z position, which represents the depth axis, creates a 3D environment. Changing the Z position moves the camera forward and back.

Zoom in on Main Camera in the Scene. As evident in the next screenshot, three rectangles are on top of the camera’s icon. You can click on the rectangles to move the camera in different planes. For example, if you click on the green rectangle, you will be able to move the camera in the XZ plane.

Rotation

The Rotation property in the Transform component works similarly to Position. Changing the X Rotation makes the camera look up and down. Changing the Y Rotation makes the camera look left and right. Changing the Z Position rotates the camera sideways, as though a player were tilting their head to the left and right.

There is another way to change Rotation. In the top left of the Unity window, there are several icons that pertain to available tools. The first tool moves the developer camera. This tool is an alternative to holding the right mouse button.

The second tool, which is pre-selected by default, allows you to move objects. Clicking on the third icon changes the tools around the Main Camera, as evident in the next image. Instead of arrows, there will be a red circle, green circle, and blue circle.

If you click and drag the circles, the camera will rotate. The colors correspond to the different axes: red for X, green for Y, blue for Z. If you click on the sphere between the circles, you can rotate the camera in all three axes.

Scale

The third element in the Transform component is Scale, which also has X, Y, and Z values. Scale changes the size of an object. Note that if you change the Scale values for Main Camera, the camera’s size will not change. This is because the camera icon is not rendered in the game. The icon represents the player’s point of view.

Directional Light is also an abstract. The player will not see its icon. Thus Scale will not work on these objects. However, Scale will change the size of a 3D element.

How do you add a 3D element? To learn this and more, check out our Unity 3D course, where we build 30 virtual reality games!

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How to Navigate the Inspector and Console in Unity | Virtual Reality Tutorial

Unity is the number one platform for building Virtual Reality (VR) games. In this tutorial, we will navigate the Inspector, Project, and Console windows in the Unity editor. To learn how to build 30 mini virtual reality games in Unity, check out our Unity 3D course!

The window to the right of the Scene contains the Inspector, as evident in the following image. This window shows details of the item currently selected, such as a game object in the Scene or a file in our project.

Click on Main Camera. The Inspector will fill with attributes of Main Camera that you can change. At the top is the name of the game object. The Tag tab allows you to label the object. The Layer tab is not often changed for Main Camera because this tab can help you check for collisions in the scene.

Main Camera’s Inspector shows the following components: Transform, Camera, GUI Layer, Flare Layer, and Audio Listener. Components change how game objects behave.

The Transform component is the most basic component of a game object. Transform allows you to set the position, rotation, and scale of an object.

The Camera component shows details about the camera. Currently, the Clear Flags property is “Skybox”, so the Game Window contains a sky. If you change Clear Flags to “Solid Color”, the Game window will fill with the color of the “Background” property.

A lot of learning in Unity is experimentation; changing values and seeing the immediate effects in the Game window. Select Directional Light from the Hierarchy. The Inspector will change to contain components of the Directional Light object. In the Light component, you can change the light’s type, color, intensity, shadows, and more.

The bottom tab in Unity contains the Project window. This window contains the Assets folder, which contains all the files that make up your game. Any 3D models, scripts, materials, animations, sound clips, video files will be in Assets.

Beside the Project tab is the Console tab. Note that if Console is not enabled beside “Project” on your screen, go to Unity > Window > Console.

The console displays messages to you as the developer. There are three kinds of messages can appear.

  • Error messages – colored red; icon is an octagon. Error messages can appear when there is a mistake in your code or when a plug-in is not working.
  • Warning messages – colored red; icon is a triangle. Warnings can provide suggestions that improve your code.
  • Basic information messages – colored white or black; icon is a speech bubble. In your game’s code, you can set messages to print in the console. These messages can inform you of what is happening in the game so that you know whether or not the game is behaving properly.

The Inspector, Project, and Console are three useful windows in the Unity editor. The Unity engine comes with built-in models, materials, and more, which you can use to make your own 2D or 3D games. To learn more about Unity, check out our Unity 3D course, where we build 30 mini virtual reality games!

How to Navigate the Hierarchy and Scene in Unity | Virtual Reality Tutorial

Unity is the number one platform for building Virtual Reality (VR) games. In this tutorial, we will navigate throughout the Hierarchy and Scene windows in the Unity editor. To learn how to build 30 mini virtual reality games in Unity, check out our Unity 3D course!

Open Unity. A start screen that resembles the following image will appear. To make a new project, select “NEW” from the top right.

In the start screen, you can adjust some of the project’s settings. Give the project a name and location. The Location field refers to the folder in which you want to save the project. It is good practice to create a new folder just for your Unity projects so that you can easily find them.

Have the 3D rendering mode enabled. Press the “Create Project” button. Unity will create a folder with the same name as your project name in the location you specified.

The Unity Editor will open. Your screen will look like the following:

The left sidebar is the Hierarchy window. This is similar to the hierarchy you have in your operating system. For example, in your Pictures folder, you may have sub-folders of events that group together photos.

The Hierarchy lists the names of the objects in the game’s scene. Each object can have its own hierarchy. Currently, we have the items Main Camera and Directional Light, which are game objects. Anything that changes how a game works visually or internally, such as a player, enemy, or explosion, should be in a game object.

You can see the objects listed in the Hierarchy in the Scene window, which is the window in the center of your screen. The Scene displays the virtual world you build for a game.

Right-click in the Scene window. The cursor will change to an icon of an eye, as evident in the next image. While holding the right mouse button, you can move the cursor to look around the Scene.

Another way to navigate the Scene is to press the W, A, S, and D keys on your keyboard while holding the right mouse button. This is similar to the left, right, forward, and back arrow controls on a video game handheld.

Click on “Main Camera” in the Hierarchy. Arrows will appear around the camera symbol in the Scene, as in the following image.

The Main Camera renders (draws) the game for the player. It can be thought of as a player. While you have the Main Camera selected, there is a Camera Preview box in the bottom right of the scene. The Camera Preview shows the scene from the perspective of a player.

To see the scene from a player’s point of view, click on the “Game” tab beside the “Scene” tab. The Game window will open, as in the following screenshot.

Re-open the Scene window. Click on “Directional Light” in the Hierarchy. Arrows will appear around the Directional Light’s symbol in the Scene. The Directional Light emits light rays. You can change this game object to change the lighting of a scene.

The Hierarchy, Scene, and Game are three important windows in the Unity editor. The Unity engine comes with built-in models, materials, and more, which you can use to make your own 2D or 3D games. To learn more about Unity, check out our Unity 3D course, where we build 30 mini virtual reality games!

 

 

How to Download Unity (for Free!) | Virtual Reality Tutorial

If you want to make a Virtual Reality (VR) game, Unity is the program for you. The Unity engine comes with built-in models, materials, and more, which you can use to make your own 2D or 3D games. To learn how to build 30 mini virtual reality games in Unity, check out our Unity 3D course!

Unity Personal is a FREE application that you can download from www.unity3d.com. Go to unity3d.com, and press the button “Get Unity now”, as in the following image.

You will be taken to a page with several versions of Unity that you can download. The Personal version is completely free, and you can publish games to the App Store with this version.

Click on the “Download Now” button in the “Personal” bar.

Then press “Download Installer”, which will download the helper file “UnityDownloaderAssistant”.

Open the “Unity Download Assistant” file when it is downloaded. Press “Continue” from the installation instructions. Read the terms of service, and press “Continue and Agree” if you agree with them.

Then you will see options for Unity components that you can download. Ensure that the top three items are selected (Unity, Documentation, and Standard Assets). You can select additional components to install extra files.

Press “Continue”. Once all the files have installed, you can open the Unity editor!

Unity is the number one platform for building VR games. You can build a variety of 2D and 3D games with this user-friendly program. To learn how to use Unity, check out our Unity 3D course, where we build 30 mini virtual reality games!